Remote Wireless Infrastructure

Drone with video recorder and wireless backhaul

Internet of Things (IoT), the connectivity/communication between devices (“things”) via the Internet is gaining momentum especially with the introduction of 5G.

 

Wireless IoT devices allow the “things” in Internet-of-Things to transmit and receive data wirelessly allowing them to be untethered to wiring infrastructure. Different IoT communication protocols have been developed to meet the low-power, wide-area coverage, and simple (low-cost) needs of IoT devices. These include communication protocols such as variants of Wi-Fi (HaLow), Z-Wave, Bluetooth, Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE), Zigbee, LoRaWAN, and Cellular-IoT (CIoT) technologies include Narrow-Band IoT (NB-IoT) and LTE Category M (LTE-M).

 

IoT Protocols
Protocol Description

Wi-Fi

Wi-Fi logo

Although IoT devices can use standard 2.4GHz and 5GHz bands including WiFi-4, WiFi-5, and WiFi-6/6X (802.11 n/ac/ax), a new 802.11 protocol (IEEE 802.11ah also known as Wi-Fi HaLow) is being developed specifically for IoT applications.

Wi-Fi Halow (802.11ah) operates in the Sub-1 GHz and offers a longer range of operation (~ 1 Km). Various enhancements to the 802.11 allow 802.11ah stations to utilize low power (allowing for extended battery life) and long-range (allowing for use in remote areas).

Bluetooth and Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE)

Bluetooth

 

Usually used for short distances and utilizes the ISM bands from 2402 -2480 MHz ISM band. Bluetooth can handle a lot of data but consumes more power compared with BLE.

With BLE, they are used for low data transfer with low connections times, about a few mS, and, therefore, can run on battery power for long periods.

Z-Wave

Z-wave architecture

This is a mesh network, usually used for home automation such as lighting control, security systems, thermostats, windows, and garage door openers.

It operates in the 900 MHz unlicensed ISM band.

ZigBee

Zigbee

This is the 802.15.4 based standard and uses the ISM bands (2.4 GHz, 900 MHz), Has ranges of up to 100 meters but this range can be increased with a mesh network of Zigbee devices comprising of ZigBee coordinator, Zigbee router, and ZigBee end devices.

LoRaWAN, Sigfox, LoRa

Lora and sigfox

 

These operate as LPWAN (Low power WAN). LoRaWAN is an 802.15.4g MAC-layer protocol. LoRaWAN links the signal to the application/s, so will contain the data transfer layer as well, enabling you to send the data to any device already connected to the cloud.

Sigfox is an ultra-narrowband technology.

LoRa uses proprietary frequency-modulated chirp which utilizes coding gain. LoRa is the signal and only contains the PHY layer protocol.

They enable communication in lower power WAN connecting IoT devices via a central network server. They have industrial and home applications.  

In the US, these use the ISM  900 MHz band and 868 MHz in Europe.

NB-IoT, LTE-M

NB-IoT

LTE-M logo

These are competitors for Sigfox and Lora in the LPWAN space.

LTE-M offers speeds of 1 Mbps (3GPP Release 13) to 4 Mbps (3GPP Release 14) for IoT applications.

NB-IoT focuses bandwidth to a single narrow band of 180 kHz. They offer lower speeds (26 kbps -127 Kbps) than the LTE-M.

 

 

Wireless Backhauls for IoT 

 

Backhauling Data from Sensors

Sensors can connect via a central RTU wirelessly or via wired connection like RS232, and Modbus. The RTU will then connect to the internet via FWA (e.g CBRS, TVWS), PtPs (e.g WiGig, Wi-Fi), Cellular, and DSL.

LTE-M and NB-IOT sensors have inbuilt modems for cellular connectivity. With the arrival of 5G, mMTC (massive Machine Type Communication, 3Gpp release 16) has also been developed. It aims to ensure connectivity of many devices including sensors, with its latency-tolerant design, and other LPWA requirements like more battery life.

Different sensors have different ranges depending on the protocol used. See the table below for comparison.

 

Protocol

Range

Data Rate

Latency

Band

Type

Wi-Fi HaLOW

Low

Long

Moderate

Sub-1 GHz

Unlicensed

Wi-Fi 5 and 6

Moderate

Moderate to long

High

2.4 & 5 GHz

Unlicensed

LTE Cat M2

Low

Moderate to long

Moderate

LTE/5G-NR

Licensed

LTE Cat NB2

Very low

Long

Low

LTE/5G-NR

Licensed

LoRa

Very low

Long

Low

Low

Unlicensed, Proprietary protocol

Sigfox

Very low

Long

Very low

800 & 900 ISM

Unlicensed, Proprietary protocol

Bluetooth Low Energy

Very low

Short

Low

2.4 GHz ISM

Unlicensed

802.15 – ZigBee, Z-Wave Thread, LoWPAN

Very low

Short

Low

ISM Band

Unlicensed

 

Example of Sensors

There are water sensors that could help in avoiding or detecting flooding in buildings, control, and monitor water flow. These sensors can be placed on floors of basements, or water storages and water conduits.

Other common sensors include HVAC sensors for temperature control, camera sensors that can be connected to private databases for image scanning, motion sensors, as well as GPS sensors/receivers typically used for navigation.

With IoT, machine-to-machine (M2M) communication is important for automation and ease of monitoring and control.

 

Use the table below to select your SCADA or contact us for a recommendation based on your projects' needs.

Compare Media & Protocol Converters Specs
Item Key Specifications Available at these Online Market Places

GE D485

D485 image

Output Interface: RS-232, RS-422, RS-485

Accessories

PDCable configuration cable

 

This product is under last time buy. Orders may be placed until 17th April 2020 and will be fulfilled based upon availability. Please contact us to discuss alternatives.

 

buy D485 from RFWEL Engr E-Store

 

 

Rfwel Infra USB-RS-485

USB-RS-485 image

Input Interface: RS-485
Output Interface: USB

 

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GE P485

P485 image

Input Protocol: Modbus
Input Interface: RS-232, RS-422, RS-485
Output Protocol: Profibus
Output Interface: RS-485

Accessories

 PDCable configuration cable

 

This product is under last time buy. Orders may be placed until 17th April 2020 and will be fulfilled based upon availability. Please contact us to discuss alternatives.

 

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Below are some cellular routers that can be used for connecting remote sites to the main office or connecting industries and offices to the internet.

Compare Cellular Routers & Gateways Specs
Item Key Specifications Available at these Online Market Places

Ursalink UR35

UR35 image

Cellular Standards: 2G, 3G, LTE
Cell Antenna Port: Yes
Wi-Fi Standards: Wi-Fi, 802.11b, 802.11g, Wi-Fi 4 (802.11n)
Wi-Fi Antenna Port: Yes

 

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Cradlepoint E300

E300 image

Cell Antenna Port: Yes
Wi-Fi Standards: Wi-Fi 6 (802.11ax), 802.11a, 802.11b, 802.11g, Wi-Fi, Wi-Fi 4 (802.11n), Wi-Fi 5 (802.11ac)

 

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Sierra Wireless LX40

LX40 image

Cellular Standards: LTE
Cell Antenna Port: Yes
Wi-Fi Standards: 802.11b, 802.11g, Wi-Fi 4 (802.11n), Wi-Fi 5 (802.11ac)
Wi-Fi Antenna Port: Yes

 

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Cradlepoint IBR600C (MPN: COR IBR600C)

IBR600C image

Cellular Standards: LTE
Cell Antenna Port: Yes
Wi-Fi Standards: 802.11b, 802.11g, Wi-Fi 4 (802.11n), Wi-Fi
Wi-Fi Antenna Port: Yes

 

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DrayTek 2926Lac

2926Lac image

Cellular Standards: LTE
Cell Antenna Port: Yes
Wi-Fi Standards: Wi-Fi 4 (802.11n), Wi-Fi 5 (802.11ac)
Wi-Fi Antenna Port: Yes

 

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Peplink BPL-310X

BPL-310X image

Cellular Standards: LTE-A
Cell Antenna Port: Yes

 

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Cradlepoint c (MPN: COR IBR650C)

IBR650C image

Cellular Standards: LTE
Cell Antenna Port: Yes

 

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Peplink BR1-SLIM-LTE

BR1-SLIM-LTE image

Cellular Standards: LTE-A, LTE
Cell Antenna Port: Yes
Wi-Fi Standards: 802.11b, 802.11g, Wi-Fi 4 (802.11n), Wi-Fi
Wi-Fi Antenna Port: Yes

 

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Peplink BPL-031-LTEA

BPL-031-LTEA image

Cellular Standards: LTE-A
Cell Antenna Port: Yes
Wi-Fi Standards: 802.11a, 802.11b, 802.11g, Wi-Fi 4 (802.11n), Wi-Fi 5 (802.11ac)
Wi-Fi Antenna Port: Yes

 

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Ursalink UR71

UR71 image

Cellular Standards: 2G, 3G, LTE
Cell Antenna Port: Yes

 

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Cradlepoint AER2200

AER2200 image

Cellular Standards: LTE-A-Pro (Gigabit LTE)
Cell Antenna Port: Yes
Wi-Fi Standards: 802.11a, 802.11b, 802.11g, Wi-Fi 5 (802.11ac)
Wi-Fi Antenna Port: Yes

 

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Sierra Wireless RV55-WIFI (MPN: 1104302)

RV55-WIFI image

Cellular Standards: LTE-A-Pro (Gigabit LTE)
Cell Antenna Port: Yes
Wi-Fi Standards: 802.11b, 802.11g, Wi-Fi 4 (802.11n), Wi-Fi 5 (802.11ac)
Wi-Fi Antenna Port: Yes

 

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Inseego SK160NE-ACR

SK160NE-ACR image

Cellular Standards: LTE
Cell Antenna Port: Yes
Wi-Fi Standards: Wi-Fi 5 (802.11ac), Wi-Fi, 802.11a, 802.11b, 802.11g, Wi-Fi 4 (802.11n)

 

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BEC Technologies MX-200A

MX-200A image

Cellular Standards: LTE-A
Cell Antenna Port: Yes

 

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Telemetry, SCADA, Machine-to-Machine

At RFWEL Engineering we specialize in long-range BWA applications for various applications including SCADA/M2M, Video Surveillance Backhaul, Data Network Backhaul & Network Bridging Solutions. Please contact a Rfwel Engineer to discuss your application and for recommendations on the equipment required to implement your SCADA, Machine-to-Machine or remote telemetry application. Our experienced team will custom-build your solution using the best-in-class equipment and industry best-known-methods. We are also a Licensed Low-Voltage Wireless Communication contractor (Arizona ROC#322820) should you need deployment assistance.

 View Wireless IoT Devices supported in RFWEL's Wireless Device Information website:

 

Info

SCADA Radio Accessories

 

DIN Rail Mounting Bracket kit for MDS SD, iNET & entraNET AP's

 

03-4125A04

 Features

- Bracket used to mount the transceiver to standard 35 mm DIN rails

- Contains brackets for mounting GE MDS SD, iNET, iNET900 AP, iNET-II and entraNET Access Points to standard 35mm DIN rails commonly used in equipment cabinets and enclosures.

- Compatible with GE MDS Access Points